Halogenated Organic Compound
A halogenated organic compound is a compound containing molecules of chlorine, bromine iodine, and fluorine. Halogenated organic compounds were used in high-voltage electrical transformers because they conduct heat well, are fire resistant, and are good electrical insulators. Many herbicides, pesticides, and degreasing agents are made from halogenated organic compounds.
Hazard Ranking System (HRS)
The HRS is the primary screening tool used by EPA to assess the risks posed to human health or the environment by abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Under the HRS, sites are assigned scores on the basis of the toxicity of hazardous substances that are present and the potential that those substances will spread through the air, surface, water, or groundwater, taking into account such factors as the proximity of the substance to nearby populations. Scores are used in determining which sites should be placed on the NPL.
As defined under CERCLA, a hazardous substance is any material that poses a threat to public health or the environment. The term also refers to hazardous wastes as defined under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Typical hazardous substances are materials that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive, or chemically reactive. If a certain quantity of a hazardous substance, as established by EPA, is spilled into the water or otherwise emitted into the environment, the release must be reported. Under the legislation cited above, the term excludes petroleum, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, or synthetic gas usable for fuel.
The term heavy metal refers to a group of toxic metals including arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc. Heavy metals often are present at industrial sites at which operations have included battery recycling and metal plating.
A hyperaccumulator is a metallophyte that accumulates an exceptionally high level of a metal to a specified concentration or to a specified multiple of the concentration found in nonaccumulators. The term is used in reference to plants used in Phytoremediation.