Immunoassay is an innovative technology used to measure compound-specific reactions (generally colorimetric) to individual compounds or classes of compounds. The reactions are used to detect and quantify contaminants. The technology is available in field-portable test kits.
The term in situ, "in its original place" or "on site," means unexcavated and unmoved. In situ soil flushing and natural attenuation are examples of in situ treatment methods by which contaminated sites are treated without digging up or removing the contaminants.
In Situ Bioremediation
In situ bioremediation techniques stimulate and create a favorable environment for microorganisms to grow and use contaminants as a food and energy source. Generally, this means providing some combination of oxygen, nutrients, and moisture, and controlling the temperature and pH. Sometimes, microorganisms adapted for degradation of the specific contaminants are applied to enhance the process. Bioventing is a common form of in situ bioremediation. Bioventing uses extraction wells to circulate air with or without pumping air into the ground.
In Situ Soil Flushing
In situ soil flushing is an innovative treatment technology that floods contaminated soils beneath the ground surface with a solution that moves the contaminants to an area from which they can be removed. The technology requires the drilling of injection and extraction wells on site and reduces the need for excavation, handling, or transportation of hazardous substances. Contaminants considered for treatment by in situ soil flushing include heavy metals (such as lead, copper, and zinc), halogenated organic compounds, aromatics, and PCBs.
In Situ Thermal Treatment
In situ thermal treatment is a treatment process that involves heating contaminated soil in place to vaporize organic contaminants in the soil. The surface area to be treated is usually covered with silicone rubber mats to provide insulation and to form a vapor barrier.
In Situ Vitrification
In situ vitrification is a soil treatment technology that stabilizes metal and other inorganic contaminants in place at temperatures of approximately 3,000°F. Soils and sludges are fused to form a stable glass and crystalline structure with very low leaching characteristics.
Infill development is new construction on previously developed land in cities or developed suburbs. The term often refers to redevelopment of small residential, commercial, or industrial properties. An important aspect of many infill development projects is the enhancement of the built environment with open space and parks.
An innovative technology is a process that has been tested and used as a treatment for hazardous waste or other contaminated materials, but lacks a long history of full-scale use and information about its cost and how well it works sufficient to support prediction of its performance under a variety of operating conditions. An innovative technology is one that is undergoing pilot-scale treatability studies that usually are conducted in the field or the laboratory and require installation of the technology, and provide performance, cost, and design objectives for the technology. Innovative technologies are being used under many federal and state cleanup programs to treat hazardous wastes that have been improperly released.
An inorganic compound is a compound that generally does not contain carbon atoms (although carbonate and bicarbonate compounds are notable exceptions) and tends to be more soluble in water. Examples of inorganic compounds include various acids, potassium hydroxide, and metals.
An institutional control is a legal or institutional measure which subjects a property owner to limit activities at or access to a particular property. They are used to ensure protection of human health and the environment, and to expedite property reuse. Zoning and deed restrictions are examples of institutional controls.
Ion exchange, a common method of softening water, depends on the ability of certain materials to remove and exchange ions from water. These ion exchange materials, generally composed of unsoluble organic polymers, are placed in a filtering device. Water softening exchange materials remove calcium and magnesium ions, replacing them with sodium ions.